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Benchmarks of Civilization

An Account of the Development, Migration and Kinship of the World’s Peoples and Cultures

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End of the Trail, Then and Now

End of the Trail, Then and Now

James Earle Fraser's End of the Trail is one of the most iconic works featured in The American West in Bronze, 1850–1925. First modeled in 1894, the sculpture is based on Fraser's experiences growing up in Dakota Territory; as he wrote in his memoirs, "as a boy, I...

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About Benchmarks of Civilization

This Benchmarks of Civilization book and its accompanying poster provide brief and illustrated resources about the development, migration and kinship of theworld’s peoples and cultures.

Historically, there have been numerous and vigorous academic disagreements about the timelines and events of most civilizations, particularly prehistoric.

However, recent scientific techniques for evidence dating and genetic tracing have provided new insights into past civilizations and cultures. That historic and genetic evidence demonstrates the kinship between all people of all civilizations and cultures over the millennia of human history.

The Benchmarks of Civilization poster provides an overview, and geographical reference and timeline for each major civilization and culture within each region of the world. Each timeline represents a cultural wave, with a beginning and end, some just a few centuries, and others for millennia.

The Benchmarks of Civilization poster helps to visualize the migration of populations. Each new civilization was the result of a population migration sometimes over a relatively short period. The poster exposes fascinating issues about the kinship between cultures: why and how did a population group break away and migrate, and how was a new culture born? Often plague or famine were the source of the death of a culture and impetus for migration as people sought new food and resources. Religion was also often a power for birth when a group fled or was forced away.

Waves out of Africa

Migration Waves out of Africa

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